Processes and Mining Methods
Open pit mining
The meaning of an open pit mine is literally an excavation that is created at the surface of the ground in order to extract ore and that is open to the surface for the time the mine is going to be used. To expose and mine the ore, it is in general required to dig and transfer great amounts of waste rock. The most important intention in all commercial mining operations is obviously that the exploitation of the mineral deposit is accomplished at the lowest cost as is possible and with a vision of maximizing returns. The assortment of physical design considerations and the development of the ore and waste extraction program are very multifaceted engineering choices that can have a very big economic significance. The setting up of an open pit mine is, as a result, in essence an exercise in money matters, controlled by some geologic and mining engineering characteristics. A bench can be looked at as an extension that forms one level of operation above which mineral or waste materials are then mined back to a bench face. The mineral or waste is separated in consecutive layers and each of these layers is what is known as a bench. A number of benches might be put to work at the same time in diverse areas and at different heights in the open pit mine.
Open pit mines can in addition be utilized in coal mining, and they are used a great deal in hard rock mining for ores like metal ores, gold, copper, iron, aluminium, and a lot of other minerals. In an open pit coal mine, the pit base comes to be the bottom mined coal seam elevation, since it is normally reasonable to take out several layers when surface mining coal. In a hard rock mine, the base of the pit would be the lowest level than it would be on an ore mine. Something else that needs to be done before the actual mining can take place is checking on the topic of environmental protection, starting as early as the first exploration, and for reclamation. It is essential that planning ease or diminish possible impacts of mining due to two a couple different reasons first of all the cost of environmental protection is decreased by added it into the original design, instead of carrying out corrective processes to make up for design problems; another reason is that bad publicity or reduced public relations can have serious economic outcomes. From the beginning of the preparation course of action, a good amount of contemplation must be specified to regulatory matters. The rate of acquiescence may possibly be drastically brought down when taken into account in the design or planning process, in a practical way, instead of being dealt with on an informal starting point as problems spring up or enforcement actions take place.