Drilling

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    Spontaneous potential logs

    in Drilling

    Spontaneous or self potential (S.P.) logs are records of the naturally occuring electrical potentials at different depths along the bore hole. To record, it is only necessary to run a single electrode sonde. The electrode is connected to a sensitive voltmeter. An S.P. log is often run simultaneously with the resistivity logs. It requires no extra rigging.
    The S.P. readings are caused by a complex mixture of relationships between the differing formations and the bore hole fluid.

    The water search team

    in Drilling

    A groundwater exploration and investigation program will involve many people (directly or indirectly).
    - Drillers of earlier holes
    - Geologists
    - Geophysicists
    - Hydrogeologist or groundwater engineers (these may be the same person on a small job)
    - Suppliers of specialized equipment and services
    - The drillers (drilling superintendent) and crew
    - The project management and the user(s)
    - Government resource, environmental, etc officials
    - Funding agents

    A contractor's cash balance

    in Drilling

    A drilling contractor must do more than operate the rig at better than the "break-even point". If he wants to stay in the business, he must manage his operations so that there is always sufficient cash on hand to cover the payments that he mustmake. This type of control over funds is termed "cashflow management".
    A supply of "operating funds" may be likened to a drum full of cash. The drum has a number of holes in the bottom which provide a continuing drain on the funds. The holes represent the "time based or fixed costs".

    Section 12 Handling drill strings

    in Drilling

    * Handling hazards
    * Holding drill strings and casing
    * Slips and safety clamps
    * Making and breaking joints
    * The hoist connection
    * Lifting the pipe
    * Extending the string
    * Pulling the string (Tripping out)
    * Running the string (Tripping in)
    * Prolonging string life
    Handling hazards
    When the gear is heavy and the working conditions wet and slippery, handling the gear safely can be quite a problem. The problem is made worse when there are several crew involved in the handling and their activities are not well coordinated.

    Additional wireline equipment

    in Drilling

    Additional wireline equipment: The standard form of the wireline core barrel is a stationary inner tube doubletube barrel. The standard wireline barrel may be converted to a triple tube barrel by fitting the split liners and changing the core lifter (and related parts) and the bit lo suit the slightly small core size.

    Section 3 Rig performance record

    in Drilling

    * Shift or daily reports
    * Other records and report
    * What to record and how to set it out
    Shift or daily reports
    Rig performance records, aga rule, are compiled to provide information on a shift or daily basis. They form the basis of a shift or daily report. In some organisations the rig performance record and the driller's log are combination the one sheet of paper to form the daily report.
    It this presentation is convenient, then ii should be used, but the new driller studyng the work of a driller must understand that two sets of information are involved:

    Minimum disturbance sampling

    in Drilling

    Standard class sampling (or "undisturbed sampling", as it is known lo most S.1. drillers) is performed by pushing the sampler into the ground. The recommended procedure for standard class sampling in cohesive soils takes advantage of low sliding friction while the sample is being cut and the higher static friction to retain the sample in the tube.
    1. Ensure that the surface or the bottom of the hole is free of loose material. Check the depth.
    2. Check that the sample tube is clean and free of dents or rust.
    3. Fit the tube to the adaptor sub and tighten the screws.

    Well surveys - survey costs

    in Drilling

    When surveying a well, the emphasis is placed on the deviation angle (or drill angle I reading
    * The deviation angle is read from the drift of the pendulum controlled indicator point from a true centre (vertical) position.
    * The drill direction is read by lining up the indicator point and the centre of the compass card
    Points to consider

    Water quality tests

    in Drilling

    Mud or water salinity (water quality) may be determined in the laboratory by several methods.
    On the rig, the quality is checked by measuring the conductivity of water using an electrical conductivity cellor a less sensitive modification of the conductivity cell, often termed a total disolved solids (TOS) test meter. Salinity is expressed in micro-ohms/cm, electical conductivity units (ECU) or as approximate total dissolved solids content in milligrams per litre(mg/L)(ppm).
    Fluid flow measurement
    Measurement of flow up or down a bore hole is usually done using a propeller type flow meter.

    Section 2 Water well construction

    in Drilling

    • Subsurface access
    • Seals in abandoned holes
    • Goals in water well construction
    • Well location, design, and construction for optimal performance
    • Casing for well completion
    • Aquifer connections
    • Well hydraulics and efficiency
    • Factors that interfere with intake efficiency
    Subsurface access
    We drill holes to gain access to the zone beneath the surface of the earth or beyond the collar of the hole. As we have seen, the access may be directed towards:
    • Testing or sampling subsurface materials.
    • removing material from the hole or placing something in the hole,